Neuroanatomy Chapter 1: General Organization

SECTION 1: OVERVIEW OF NEUROANATOMY

image

Brain, Brainstem, & Cerebellum

  • Meninges—protect and nourish nervous system
  • Cerebral Cortex—outer cellular gray matter of brain
  • Subcortical White Matter—underlying axons
  • Basal Ganglia—motor function
  • Thalamus—relays information throughout cerebrum (mostly sensory)
  • Hypothalamus—center for autonomic nervous system
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid System—assists meninges in protecting and nourishing nervous system
  • Brainstem—cranial nerve nuclei, neuronal populations, and fiber tracts; composed of midbrain, pons, and medulla
  • Cerebellum—fundamental for coordination

image

Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System

  • Spinal Cord—intermediary between brain and periphery
  • Dorsal Nerve Root—comes from posterior; sensory
  • Ventral Nerve Root—comes from anterior; motor

Autonomic Nervous System

  • Parasympathetic Ganglion—rest
  • Sympathetic Chain—action

SECTION 2: ORIENTATIONAL TERMINOLOGY

image

Planes

  • Anterior—front
  • Posterior—behind
  • Superior—top
  • Inferior—bottom

image

Sagittal View

  • Dorsal (dorsal fin of shark)
  • Ventral (underbelly)
  • Rostral (beak)
  • Caudal (tail)
  • Cerebrum: dorsal = superior; ventral = inferior; rostral = anterior; caudal = posterior
  • Brainstem moves 180 degrees so rostral = superior; caudal = posterior; ventral = anterior; dorsal = posterior

image

Coronal View

  • Radiographic - head is viewed from front
  • Anatomic - head is viewed from behind

image

Axial View (AKA horizontal/transverse)

  • Radiographic - feet are coming out at you
  • Anatomic - head is coming up at you

SECTION 3: DIVISIONS & SIGNS

Central Nervous System

  • Brain
  • Brainstem
  • Cerebellum
  • Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System

  • Cranial Nerves
  • Spinal Nerves

**Autonomic nervous system excluded for simplicity. 

Clinical Scenarios

  1. UMN injury - stroke with injury to cerebral cortex and underlying white matter
  2. LMN injury - peripheral polyneuropathy
  3. Mixed pattern injury - spinal cord injury (aka myelopathy)
  • above level of lesion - normal
  • below level of lesion - UMN injury pattern
  • at level of lesion - LMN injury pattern